Low population areas and low income people often face unreliable public transport charac- terized by long waiting times. Meanwhile, a private vehicle in the same area, on average, will remain inactive for long periods of time. Recent research in shared mobility systems addresses this situation. Specifically, Demand Responsive Transport, DRT, a transport al- ternative between a bus and taxi, and which has many specification variations, has pioneered provision of an alternative transport solution geared to reach under-served minorities. So- lutions to DRT trip scheduling and costing mechanisms usually include constraints specific to the variation of DRT specifications.
We aim to maximize use of a vehicle and we propose a design of a DRT-based Demand Re- sponsive Mobility as a Service, DRMaaS, model that provides centralized management and ICT support in in delivering multiple services in a vehicle. Our design adds time constraints of vehicle schedule to the DRT problem. We also consider cost sharing mechanism.
We focus on reducing waiting time and propose a trip scheduling and cost sharing algorithm. We base our approach on a DRT heuristic algorithm. We also consider time windows. We propose a new cost sharing mechanism, based on traditional distance costing techniques but considering, seat capacity, an approach unique to the specifications of our design.
A simulation experiment validating the algorithm showed a decreased waiting time, at 2 minutes, from previous research, 14.4 minutes. We developed a web and android applica- tion, running the algorithm, to test the solution in a pilot study in Dhaka, Bangladesh for 4 months. Actual waiting time was estimated at 3 minutes, an improvement from previous DRT heuristic algorithms.